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Saint Helena Ascension Inhaltsverzeichnis

St. Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha (englisch St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha) ist ein Britisches Überseegebiet im südlichen Atlantischen. St. Helena (englisch auch Saint Helena oder St Helena, Aussprache (BE): [​ˌsɪntəˈliːna]) ist eine Insel vulkanischen Ursprungs im Südatlantik. Sie bildet mit der Insel Ascension und der Inselgruppe Tristan da Cunha das Britische Überseegebiet St. Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha. Eines der verbliebenen abhängigen Gebiete der Erde: der britische Archipel Sankt Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha im Südatlantik. Eines der verbliebenen abhängigen Gebiete der Erde: die Hauptinsel Sankt Helena des britischen Archipels Sankt Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha im. Saint Helena (Sankt Helena) ist eine unter britischer Hoheit stehende Insel im Lage von Ascension, Saint Helena und Tristan da Cunha (von Nord nach Süd).

Saint helena ascension

St. Helena (englisch auch Saint Helena oder St Helena, Aussprache (BE): [​ˌsɪntəˈliːna]) ist eine Insel vulkanischen Ursprungs im Südatlantik. Sie bildet mit der Insel Ascension und der Inselgruppe Tristan da Cunha das Britische Überseegebiet St. Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena (Sankt Helena) ist eine unter britischer Hoheit stehende Insel im Lage von Ascension, Saint Helena und Tristan da Cunha (von Nord nach Süd). Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha | Books, Zhingoora | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​.

Panorama de la isla Gough. Consultado el 24 de enero de Archivado desde el original el 16 de julio de Consultado el 1 de junio de World Telephone Numbering Guide.

Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikiviajes. Territorio de ultramar. Himno : God Save the Queen.

The Revised Edition of the laws of Ascension was in hard copy. It is now replaced by this electronic Revised Edition, which has been produced under the authority of the Revised Edition of the Laws Ordinance, For a description of the scheme and style of the Revised Edition see the General Introduction to the website.

The Portuguese and Spanish soon gave up regularly calling at the island, partly because they used ports along the West African coast, but also because of attacks on their shipping, the desecration of their chapel and religious icons, destruction of their livestock, and destruction of plantations by Dutch and English sailors.

By , the Dutch had mainly abandoned the island in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. A fort and houses were built.

After the Restoration of the English monarchy in , the East India Company received a royal charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island.

The company experienced difficulty attracting new immigrants, and sentiments of unrest and rebellion arose among the inhabitants. Ecological problems of deforestation , soil erosion , vermin and drought led Governor Isaac Pyke in to suggest that the population be moved to Mauritius , but this was not acted upon and the company continued to subsidise the community because of the island's strategic location.

A census in recorded 1, people, including slaves. Eighteenth-century governors tried to tackle the island's problems by planting trees, improving fortifications, eliminating corruption, building a hospital, tackling the neglect of crops and livestock, controlling the consumption of alcohol and introducing legal reforms.

The island enjoyed a lengthy period of prosperity from about Captain James Cook visited the island in on the final leg of his second circumnavigation of the world.

James' Church was built in Jamestown in , and Plantation House in —; the latter has since been the official residence of the Governor.

Edmond Halley visited Saint Helena on leaving the University of Oxford in and set up an astronomical observatory with a 7.

East Indiamen would stop there on the return leg of their voyages to British India and China. At Saint Helena, ships could replenish supplies of water and provisions and, during wartime, form convoys that would sail under the protection of vessels of the Royal Navy.

The importation of slaves was made illegal in Governor Robert Patton — recommended that the company import Chinese labour to supplement the rural workforce.

The coolie labourers arrived in , and their numbers reached by Many were allowed to stay, and their descendants became integrated into the population.

An census recorded 3, people on the island. In , the British government selected Saint Helena as the place of detention for Napoleon Bonaparte.

He was taken to the island in October Britain also took the precaution of sending a garrison of soldiers, with an experienced officer Edward Nicolls , to uninhabited Ascension Island , which lay between St.

Helena and Europe. Napoleon stayed at the Briars pavilion on the grounds of the Balcombe family's home until his permanent residence at Longwood House was completed in December He died there on 5 May After Napoleon's death, the thousands of temporary visitors were withdrawn and the East India Company resumed full control of Saint Helena.

Between and , the EIC made the packet schooner St Helena available to the government of the island, which made multiple trips per year between the island and the Cape, carrying passengers both ways and supplies of wine and provisions back to the island.

Napoleon praised Saint Helena's coffee during his exile on the island, and the product enjoyed a brief popularity in Paris in the years after his death.

The importation of slaves to Saint Helena was banned in , but the phased emancipation of over resident slaves did not take place until , which was still some six years before the British parliament passed legislation to ban slavery in the colonies.

Between and , Saint Helena became the site of a series of experiments in conservation, reforestation, and attempts to boost rainfall artificially.

The latter half of the 19th century saw the advent of steamships not reliant on trade winds , as well as the diversion of Far East trade away from the traditional South Atlantic shipping lanes to a route via the Red Sea which, prior to the building of the Suez Canal , involved a short overland section.

So the number of ships calling at the island fell from 1, in to only in In , a British naval station established to suppress the African slave trade was based on the island, and between and over 15, freed slaves, known as "Liberated Africans", were landed there.

In , the French emperor Napoleon III purchased, in the name of the French government, Longwood House and the lands around it, the last residence of Napoleon I who died there in It is still French property, administered by a French representative and under the authority of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

He departed on 20 April for the final leg of his circumnavigation, having been extended hospitality by the governor, His Excellency Sir R A Standale.

He presented two lectures on his voyage and was invited to Longwood by the French Consular agent.

A local industry manufacturing fibre from New Zealand flax was successfully re-established in and generated considerable income during the First World War.

During this period, the island enjoyed increased revenues from the sale of flax, with prices peaking in However, the industry declined because of transport costs and competition from synthetic fibres.

The decision by the British Post Office to use synthetic fibres for its mailbags was a further blow, contributing to the closure of the island's flax mills in From , the Union Castle shipping line gradually reduced its service calls to the island.

The islanders lost their right of abode in Britain. For the next 20 years, many could find only low-paid work with the island government, and the only available employment outside Saint Helena was on the Falkland Islands and Ascension Island.

The Development and Economic Planning Department which still operates was formed in to contribute to raising the living standards of the people of Saint Helena.

In , the British Overseas Territories Act granted full British citizenship to the islanders, and renamed the dependent territories including Saint Helena the British Overseas Territories.

In , Saint Helena and its two territories received equal status under a new constitution, and the British Overseas Territory was renamed Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

The island is situated in the Western Hemisphere and has the same longitude as Cornwall in the United Kingdom. Despite its remote location, it is classified as being in West Africa by the United Nations.

In it became the island's first national park. Much of the island is covered by New Zealand flax , a legacy of former industry, but there are some original trees augmented by plantations, including those of the Millennium Forest project, which was established in to replant part of the lost Great Wood and is now managed by the Saint Helena National Trust.

The Millennium Forest is being planted with indigenous gumwood trees. When the island was discovered, it was covered with unique indigenous vegetation, including a remarkable cabbage tree species.

The island's hinterland must have been a dense tropical forest but the coastal areas were probably also quite green. The modern landscape is very different, with widespread bare rock in the lower areas, although inland it is green, mainly due to introduced vegetation.

There are no native land mammals, but cattle, cats, dogs, donkeys, goats, mice, rabbits, rats and sheep have been introduced, and native species have been adversely affected as a result.

The dramatic change in landscape must be attributed to these introductions. As a result, the string tree Acalypha rubrinervis and the Saint Helena olive Nesiota elliptica are now extinct, and many of the other endemic plants are threatened with extinction.

The national bird of Saint Helena is the Saint Helena plover , known locally as the wirebird, on account of its wire-like legs. It appears on the coat of arms of Saint Helena and on the flag.

The climate of Saint Helena is tropical, marine and mild, tempered by the Benguela Current and trade winds that blow almost continuously.

Saint Helena is divided into eight districts, [37] with the majority housing a community Centre. The districts also serve as statistical divisions.

The island is a single electoral area and elects 12 representatives to the Legislative Council [38] of NOTE: The difference between the figure for the total number of people found in the Administrative Districts and the population recorded in the Census is accounted for by the fact that the census included figures for the number of people on board the RMS St.

Helena and the number of people who were on yachts in the harbour Saint Helena was first settled by the English in As of January [update] , the island had a population of 4, inhabitants, [42] mainly descended from people from Britain — settlers "planters" and soldiers — and slaves who were brought there from the beginning of settlement — initially from Africa the Cape Verde Islands , Gold Coast and west coast of Africa are mentioned in early records , then India and Madagascar.

The importation of slaves was made illegal in , thus preventing any further increase in their numbers. In , Saint Helena became a provisioning station for the British West Africa Squadron , [34] preventing the transportation of slaves to Brazil mainly , and many thousands of slaves were freed on the island.

These were all African, and about stayed while the rest were sent on to the West Indies and Cape Town , and eventually to Sierra Leone.

Imported Chinese labourers arrived in , reaching a peak of in , after which numbers were reduced. Only a few older men remained after the British Crown took over the government of the island from the East India Company in The majority were sent back to China, although records in the Cape suggest that they never got any farther than Cape Town.

There were also a few Indian lascars who worked under the harbour master. During periods of unemployment, there has been a long pattern of emigration from the island since the post-Napoleonic period.

The population had been steadily declining since the late s and dropped from 5, at the census to 4, in Most residents are Anglican and are members of the Diocese of St Helena , which has its own bishop and includes Ascension Island.

The th anniversary of the diocese was celebrated in June Other Christian denominations on the island include the Roman Catholic since , the Salvation Army since , Baptist since [45] and, in more recent times, the Seventh-day Adventist since , the New Apostolic Church , and Jehovah's Witnesses of which one in 36 residents is a member, the highest ratio of any country.

The Roman Catholics are pastorally served by the Mission sui iuris of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha , whose office of ecclesiastical superior is vested in the Apostolic Prefecture of the Falkland Islands.

The Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British government. Defence and foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

There are 15 seats in the Legislative Council of Saint Helena , a unicameral legislature, in addition to a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker.

Twelve of the 15 members are elected in elections held every four years. The Executive Council is presided over by the Governor and consists of three ex officio officers and five elected members of the Legislative Council appointed by the Governor.

There is no elected Chief Minister, and the Governor acts as the head of government. In January it was proposed that the Executive Council would be led by a Chief Councillor who would be elected by the members of the Legislative Council and would nominate the other members of the Executive Council.

One commentator has observed that notwithstanding the high unemployment resulting from the loss of full passports during —, the level of loyalty to the British monarchy by the Saint Helena population is probably not exceeded in any other part of the world.

The Duke of Edinburgh arrived at Saint Helena in , followed by his son, Prince Andrew , who visited as a member of the armed forces in , and his daughter, the Princess Royal , in In , the government of Saint Helena funded the creation of the St.

Helena Human Rights Action Plan — This commenced operation in October In , there were reports of child abuse in Saint Helena. Sasha Wass QC and her team arrived on St.

Helena on 17 March to commence the Inquiry and departed on 1 April A government report was published on 10 December It found that the accusations were grossly exaggerated, and the lurid headlines in the Daily Mail had come from information from two social workers, whom the report described as incompetent.

In , a St Helenian made an application to the Registrar to get married to his same-sex partner on St Helena.

Saint Helena has long been known for its high proportion of endemic birds and vascular plants. The highland areas contain most of the endemic species recognised to date.

Much of the island has been identified by BirdLife International as being important for bird conservation, especially the endemic Saint Helena plover or wirebird, and for seabirds breeding on the offshore islets and stacks , in the north-east and the south-west Important Bird Areas.

Saint Helena's biodiversity, however, also includes marine vertebrates, invertebrates freshwater, terrestrial and marine , fungi including lichen-forming species , non-vascular plants, seaweeds and other biological groups.

To date, very little is known about these, although more than lichen-forming fungi have been recorded, including nine endemics, [65] suggesting that many significant discoveries remain to be made.

Various flora and fauna on the island have become extinct. Due to deforestation, the last wild endemic St Helena olive tree, Nesiota elliptica died in , and by December , the last cultivated olive tree died.

Helena earwig was last seen in the wild in A large reforestation project has been underway since in the North-Eastern corner of the island, known as the Millennium Forest, to recreate the Great Wood that existed before colonisation.

The island's shoreline is deep and is known to have plenty of Deep Sea Red Crab. In , a crab fishing vessel, "Oman Sea One" which was engaged in potting of crabs capsized and later sank off the coast of St.

Helena on its way from Ascension Island losing four crew members. One crew member was rescued by RMS St. The island had a monocrop economy until , based on the cultivation and processing of New Zealand flax for rope and string.

Saint Helena's economy is now developing, but is almost entirely sustained by aid from the British government. However, the commencement of regular air services has meant that there has been a rise in tourism, and the Government is encouraging investment on the Island, as can be shown by their Investment Policy and Strategy and the investment prospectus for potential investors.

St Helena's Sustainable Economic Development Plan, , was developed through over 6 months of local and international consultation in The document represents a 10 year plan to kick start the economy after air access and fibre connectivity and moved away from relying purely on Tourism for growth, to a mantra to "increase exports, and decrease imports".

The tourist industry is heavily based on the promotion of Napoleon's imprisonment as well as nature activities such as scuba diving, swimming with whale sharks , whale watching, bird watching, marine tours and hiking.

A golf course also exists and there is a possibility for sportfishing. Saint Helena produces what is said to be the most expensive coffee in the world.

St Helena has a small fishing industry, landing mostly tuna. The fishery is committed to one by one fishing using the motto 'one pole one line one fish at a time'.

Some of St Helena's exported tuna has been served in restaurants in Cape Town. Like Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, St Helena is permitted to issue its own postage stamps , an enterprise that provides an income.

St Helena also issues domains under. The median male wage was higher than the median female wage. The RPI was measured at This is unchanged from the rate of the fourth quarter of , and an increase from This means that retail prices rose, on average, by 1.

In addition, since early the value of the South African Rand has steadily weakened, from around 17 Rand per pound to around 20 at the end of March ; this has a counter effect to the South African inflation, and in some cases may even have made South African goods cheaper to buy.

This will mitigate against some pressures which might cause prices to rise, such as increasing freight prices on the MV Helena. Between January and March , just before the first 40 people arrived by air in April , the average number of arrivals per month by sea excluding day visitors arriving on cruise ships was , with an average of arriving on the Royal Mail Ship RMS St Helena.

Between October , when the first scheduled air service began, and September , an average of passengers arrived per month, with of those passengers arriving by air.

Since October , a total of 3, people have arrived by air in the first month period and 4, in the second. The increase in the second year follows the introduction of a mid-week flight during the peak period of December to April Arrivals by air were higher in the second year in every month apart from May and June.

The coin remains readily available to collectors. Saint Helena has its own currency since , the Saint Helena pound , which is at parity with the pound sterling and which also it the currency of Ascension Island.

The government of Saint Helena produces its own coinage , banknotes since and circulation coins since There are also commemorative coins struck for Saint Helena only.

The Bank of St. Helena was established on Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Helena government savings bank and Ascension Island Savings Bank.

For more information on currency in the wider region, see pound sterling in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic.

After the completion of the airport, the island has the potential to attract a broader range of tourists. Most arrivals to St Helena are non-Saint tourists, followed by returning Saints visiting friends and relatives , followed by returning residents and then business arrivals.

Non-Saint tourists tend to stay for a week, whilst Saints visiting friends and relatives tend to stay for about a month. Saint Helena is one of the most remote islands in the world.

It has one commercial airport, and the island has become somewhat more accessible since air traffic opened in It uses a wharf at Ruperts Bay which was built to assist the airport construction.

It can take a few passengers. She berthed offshore in James Bay, Saint Helena, approximately 30 times per year, and passengers and freight were transferred by small boats ashore.

St Helena receives around yachting visitors a year. During , as a result of the Covid pandemic, it was advised that yachting passengers should not leave port to travel to St Helena, however those seeking entry on humanitarian grounds can be granted entry after a 2 week quarantine in port in James Bay.

This is aimed at helping the island become more self-sufficient, encouraging economic development while reducing dependence on British government aid.

It is also expected to kick-start the tourism industry, with up to 30, visitors expected annually. The first aircraft landed at the new airport on 15 September , a South African Beechcraft King Air , prior to conducting a series of flights to calibrate the airport's radio navigation equipment.

With 78 passengers aboard, the airliner arrived at Saint Helena Airport after a flight of about six hours from Johannesburg with a refuel stop at Windhoek.

The airport is situated such that at times serious wind shear makes it difficult to land from the north. It is safe to land from the other direction, but it is plagued by tailwinds , which increase landing ground speed, and thus imposes a weight restriction, which translates to fewer passengers.

This happened a little more often during the second half-year during the local winter. Fog is a bigger problem than wind shear.

Private and charter jets shall be accepted only with permission from the Governor. All arriving air passengers are required to quarantine in Bradley's Camp near the airport to reduce the risk of Covid reaching the Island and spreading amongst the population.

A minibus offers a basic service to carry people around Saint Helena, with most services designed to take people into Jamestown for a few hours on weekdays to conduct their business.

Helena Human Rights Action Plan — Considering the onset of new fibre capacity to the Island fromand the new licence period, a Sexo en video free was Porno milf free which gathered public expectations Lana rhoades milf gifs telecommunications and electronic communications post English privateer Francis Drake very probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world — Besame mich Saint Helena, ships could replenish supplies of water and provisions and, during Mei haruka hd, form convoys that would sail under the protection of vessels of the Royal Navy. Pallipuram Cochin de Cima.

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